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RIC Volume VII - Constantine and Licinius

Volume VII was written by Patrick M. Bruun and edited by C. H. V. Sutherland and R. A. G. Carson. The latest edition is from 1966 and was last reprinted in 1997. It is 778 pages and 24 pages of plates. This volume is arranged by mint, chronologically by denomination, then alphabetically by reverse legend.

Note: The following table was created from the information in RIC VII and David Vagi's "Coinage and History of the Roman Empire" Volumes I and II

Common Name Full Name Association Date Period
Licinius I Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus, Elevated by Diocletian 308-324
Constantia Flavia Julia Constantia Wife of Licinius I 313-324
Licinius II Flavius Valerius Constantinus Licinianus Licinius Caesar/Augustus, Son of Licinius I 317-324
Valerius Valens Gaius Aurelius Valerius Valens Augustus, Elevated by Licinius I 316-317
Martinian Sextus Marcius (?) Martinianus Augustus, Elevated by Licinius I 324
Constantine I Flavius Valerius Constantinus Caesar/Augustus, Son of Constantius I 306-337
Fausta Flavia Maxima Fausta Wife of Constantine I 324-326
Crispus Flavius Julius (or Valerius) Crispus Caesar, Son of Constantine I 316-326
Delmatius Flavius Julius Delmatius or (Dalmatius) Caesar, Grandson of Constantius I 335-337
Hanniballianus Flavius Claudius Hanniballianus (or Hannibalianus) Rex Regum, Grandson of Constantius I 335-337
Constantine II Flavius Claudius (or Julius) Constantinus Caesar/Augustus, Son of Constantine I 316-340
Constantius II Flavius Julius Valerius Constantius Caesar/Augustus, Son of Constantine I 324-361
Constans Flavius Julius Constans Caesar/Augustus, Son of Constantine I 333-350

On pages 88-91 of RIC VII, there is a list of 17 obverse bust type categories that is one of the keys to understanding the coded references.

Although some of these bust types are almost impossible to acquire, I will list them all and add photographs of the pieces as they become available.  Describing something as "seen from behind or back" makes much more sense if there is a picture to accompany.  Also, any of these bust types could be facing right or left.  The default is right and if the bust faces left, it is noted as a lower case l in the description, ie. A6l.

( i ) Plain Busts
A - Bare Headed
  A1 - head bare
A2 - head bare, draped, cuirassed, seen from back
  A3 - head bare, draped, cuirassed, bust facing
A4l - head bare, draped, cuirassed
A5 - head bare, cuirassed
A6 - head bare, waved hair, mantled (Fausta)
A6 - head bare, waved hair, mantled (Fausta)
  A7 - head bare, but intertwined plaits encircling head, plaits decorated with hair-pins, mantled with necklace (Constantia)
B - Laureate
B1 - head laureate
  B2 - head laureate, looking upwards
B3 - bust laureate, draped, cuirassed, seen from back
B3l - bust laureate, draped, cuirassed, seen from back
B4 - bust laureate, draped, cuirassed
B4l - bust laureate, draped, cuirassed
B5 - bust laureate, cuirassed
B5l - bust laureate, cuirassed
  B6 - bust laureate, wearing trabea
C - Radiate

C1 - head radiate

C2l - bust radiate, draped, cuirassed, seen from back
C3 - bust radiate, draped, cuirassed
C3l - bust radiate, draped, cuirassed
C3l - bust radiate, draped, cuirassed (and mantled?)
  C4 - bust radiate, cuirassed
Undetermined - bust radiate, cuirassed, seen from behind?
D - Helmeted 
 

D1 - helmeted, draped, cuirassed

D2 - helmeted, cuirassed

Note: Helmet style with chin strap

D2 - helmeted, cuirassed

Note: Helmet style with visor and no chin strap

D2l - helmeted, cuirassed
D3l - helmeted, wearing imperial cloak (Vrbs Roma)
D4l - helmet with plume, wearing imperial cloak (Vrbs Roma)
  D5 - laureate, helmeted, draped, cuirassed
D6 - laureate, helmeted, cuirassed
D7 - high-crested helmet (bowl-shaped), cuirassed
E - Diademed - (Note: There is an extremely wide variation in style of diadems within each category)

E1 - head with plain diadem

  E2 - head with rosette-diadem
E3 - head with pearl-diadem
E4 - head with plain diadem, looking upwards (also referred to as "Eyes to God")

Note: Diadem with oblique diagonal lines

E4 - head with plain diadem, looking upwards

Note: Ladder shaped diadem with each section containing either just an open circle or an open circle at left and two leaves at right

E4 - head with plain diadem, looking upwards

Note: Ladder shaped diadem with each section containing either just an open circle or an open circle at right and two leaves at left

E4 - head with plain diadem, looking upwards

Note: Ladder shaped diadem with single pellet in each section

E4 - head with plain diadem, looking upwards

Note: Bands adorned with pearls and jewels with small forehead jewel

  E5 - head with rosette-diadem, looking upwards
  E6 - head with pearl-diadem, looking upwards
E7 - plain diadem, draped, cuirassed bust
E8 - rosette-diadem, draped, cuirassed bust
E8 - rosette-diadem, draped, cuirassed bust
  E9 - pearl-diadem, draped, cuirassed bust
E10 - diademed, mantled, with necklace (Helena)
E10 - diademed, mantled, with necklace (Helena)

Note: Diademed, mantled bust right, wearing double-strand pearl necklace, hair brushed straight back, small waves along forehead to ear, loop braid at base of head, plait tucked under while carried up the back and looped at top

  E11 - double pearl-diadem with forehead jewel on plait encircling head, mantled with necklace
(Helena)
F - Veiled
F1 - head veiled and laureate
( ii ) Busts with adjuncts
G - Laureate with spear and/or shield (also either together or with other adjuncts)
  G1 - laureate, draped, spear across right shoulder
  G2 - laureate, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder
  G3 - laureate, draped with shield
  G4 - laureate, cuirassed with shield
G5l - laureate, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm
  G6 - laureate, head right, bust cuirassed, facing, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm
G7l - laureate, heroic (nude) bust, spear pointing forward, shield on left arm
G8l - laureate, cuirassed with spear pointing forward, shield on left arm
  G9 - laureate, cuirassed with spear pointing forward, shield on right arm
  G10 - laureate, draped, cuirassed with spear pointing forward, globe in left hand
  G11 - laureate, cuirassed, spear across left shoulder, holding horse by bridle with left hand
  G12 - laureate, cuirassed, shield on left arm, holding horse by bridle with left hand
  G13 - laureate, cuirassed, spear and shield on left arm, holding horse by bridle with left hand
  G14 - laureate, cuirassed, two arrows in right hand, one in left hand, shield on left arm
H - Helmeted with spear and/or shield
  H1 - helmeted, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder
H2l - helmeted, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm
  H3 - helmeted, cuirassed, spear across left shoulder, shield
H4l - helmeted, cuirassed, spear pointing forward, shield
  H5 - helmeted, draped, spear on left arm, holding horse by bridle with right hand
H6 - laureate, helmeted, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm
  H7 - laureate, helmeted, draped, spear pointing forward, shield on left arm
  H8 - laureate, helmeted, cuirassed, spear pointing forward, shield on left arm
  H9 - laureate, helmeted, cuirassed, shield on left shoulder, Victory on globe in right hand
  H10 - laureate, helmeted, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm, holding horse by bridle
H11l - high-crested helmet, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder
  H12 - high-crested helmet, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm
  H13 - high-crested helmet, cuirassed, three-quarters facing, holding horse by bridle with right hand, reversed spear on left arm
  H14 - high-crested helmet, cuirassed, three-quarters facing, reversed spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm
I - With Victory on globe

I1l - laureate, draped, Victory on globe in right hand, mappa in left hand

  I2 - laureate, draped, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left hand
  I3 - laureate, draped, cuirassed, Victory on globe in right hand, spear across right shoulder
  I4 - laureate, draped, cuirassed, Victory on globe in left hand, spear pointing forward in right hand
  I5 - laureate, cuirassed, spear across left shoulder, shield, Victory on globe in left hand
  I6 - radiate, with trabea, Victory on globe in right hand
  I7 - head with nimbus, bust three-quarters facing, wearing trabea, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left hand (same as Q3)
  I8 - diademed, draped, cuirassed, Victory on globe in right hand
  I9 - high-crested helmet, cuirassed, Victory on globe in right hand
  I10 - laureate, draped, cuirassed, Victory on globe in left hand, raising right hand
J - With globe, scepter and/or mappa

J1 - laureate, draped, globe, scepter in left hand, mappa in right

J1l - laureate, draped, globe, scepter in left hand, mappa in right

  J2 - laureate, cuirassed, mappa in left hand
  J3 - laureate, draped, cuirassed, mappa in raised right hand, scepter across left shoulder
K - Consular
 

K1 - laureate, wearing trabea

  K2 - laureate, cuirassed, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
K3 - laureate, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
K3l - laureate, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
  K4 - laureate, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand, globe
  K5 - radiate, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
  K6 - helmeted, cuirassed, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
  K7 - diademed, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
L - Showing imperatorial gestus (raising hand, holding globe)
  L1 - laureate, draped, cuirassed, raising right hand
  L2 - laureate, cuirassed, raising right hand
L3l - laureate, draped, cuirassed, raising right hand, globe in left hand
  L4 - radiate, cuirassed, raising right hand, globe in left hand
  L5 - radiate, wearing trabea, raising right hand, globe in left hand
  L6 - nimbate bust, facing, draped, cuirassed, raising right hand, globe in left hand (same as Q2)
  L7 - helmeted, cuirassed, raising right hand
  L8 - diademed, draped, cuirassed, raising right hand, globe in left hand
M - With globe
M1l - laureate, cuirassed, with globe
  M2 - laureate, wearing trabea, holding globe
  M3 - high-crested helmet, wearing trabea, holding globe
N - Helmeted with reversed spear (Constantinopolis)
N1l - laureate, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak, reversed spear
  N2 - helmet with pearl diadem, wearing imperial cloak, reversed spear (Note: the pearl diadem is not a diadem proper, but is the result of the technique of engraving the laurel wreath, particularly at Cyzicus)
O - Conjugate busts
  O1 - Sol radiate, Constantine laureate, draped, cuirassed, raising right hand, globe in left hand
  O2 - Sol radiate, Constantine laureate, cuirassed with spear and shield
P - Confronted busts
  P1 - nimbate busts, bare-headed, facing, draped, cuirassed
  P2 - laureate, draped, facing one another, together holding Victory on globe, each holding short sceptre
P3 - laureate, draped, facing one another, together holding trophy with two shields
  P4 - laureate, draped, facing one another, together holding Fortuna
Q - Nimbate busts facing
  Q1 - nimbate, draped, cuirassed
  Q2 - nimbate, draped, cuirassed, raising right hand, globe in left hand (same as L6)
  Q3 - nimbate, draped, cuirassed, Victory on globe in right hand, mappa in left hand (same as I7)

*** Bust types not in RIC VII of coins from the period ***

H Series - Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder, no shield
I Series - Laureate, cuirassed, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left hand

I Series - Laureate, cuirassed, Victory on globe in right hand, mappa in left hand


I Series - Laureate, cuirassed, Victory on globe in right hand, mappa in left hand


I Series - Laureate half-length bust right, wearing trabea, scepter (?) in right hand, globe in left surmounted by radiate Sol standing facing, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder, right hand raised

Draped, cuirassed bust, wearing Pannonian cap

Late Roman Empire

A fellow Late Roman collector, Warren Esty, has done a phenomenal job documenting his collection and a great deal of information about coin types and history.  Please click here to visit his site, but be prepared to spend several hours absorbing all of the information!